Cromwell at Dunbar Andrew Carrick Gow
Preceded by Second English Civil War
Including Third English Civil War
The Protectorate
Followed by Restoration
Leader(s) Oliver Cromwell (1653–58)
Richard Cromwell (1658–59)

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when England, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War.

In 1653, after the forcible dissolution of the Rump Parliament, Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector of a united "Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland" under the terms of the Instrument of Government, inaugurating the period now usually known as the Protectorate. After Cromwell's death, and following a brief period of rule under his son, Richard Cromwell, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, the start of a process that led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 – a period referred to by monarchists as the Interregnum – although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwell’s formal assumption of power in 1653.

External links

British monarchs
Monarchs of England before 1603

Æthelstan · Edmund I · Eadred · Eadwig · Edgar the Peaceful · Edward the Martyr · Æthelred the Unready · Sweyn Forkbeard · Edmund Ironside · Cnut the Great · Harold Harefoot · Harthacnut · Edward the Confessor · Harold Godwinson · Edgar the Ætheling · William I · William II · Henry I · Stephen · Matilda · Henry II · Henry the Young King · Richard I · John · Henry III · Edward I · Edward II · Edward III · Richard II · Henry IV · Henry V · Henry VI · Edward IV · Edward V · Richard III · Henry VII · Henry VIII · Edward VI · Jane · Mary I and · Philip · Elizabeth I

Monarchs of Scotland before 1603

Kenneth I MacAlpin · Donald I · Constantine I · Áed · Giric · Eochaid · Donald II · Constantine II · Malcolm I · Indulf · Dub · Cuilén · Amlaíb · Kenneth II · Constantine III · Kenneth III · Malcolm II · Duncan I · Macbeth · Lulach · Malcolm III Canmore · Donald III · Duncan II · Donald III · Edgar · Alexander I · David I · Malcolm IV · William I · Alexander II · Alexander III · Margaret · First Interregnum · John · Second Interregnum · Robert I · David II · Edward · Robert II · Robert III · James I · James II · James III · James IV · James V · Mary I · James VI

Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603

James I & VI · Charles I · Commonwealth · Charles II · James II & VII · William III & II · Mary II · Anne

British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707

Anne · George I · George II · George III · George IV · William IV · Victoria · Edward VII · George V · Edward VIII · George VI · Elizabeth II

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